Based on available data, among Japanese oseltamivir resistant viruses, the vast majority were from cases treated or prophylaxed with oseltamivir.

The recently released H1N1 sequences from Japan clearly demonstrate the spread of oseltamivir resistance (H274Y) via clonal expansion.  10 of the 13 sequences with H274Y were closely related and mapped to a branch that had no isolates without H274Y. Moreover one additional sequence, A/Kagawa/2/2011, was closely related and was on an adjacent branch with one isolate, A/Shiga/35/2011, that did not have H274Y.  One of the other isolates with H274Y, A/Iwate/1008/2011, was related to other sequences from Japan, while the other H274Y positive sequence, A/Hiroshima/45/2011, was related to US S188T sequences.  

Thus, 12 of the 13 sequences were from 2011 (representing 38.7% of the 2011 sequences released by NIID) and the vast majority were spreading via clonal expansion, contracting the above quote in the most recent WHO update on H247Y in pandemic H1N1. Continued:

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