On December 7, an additional case of human infection with swine-origin triple reassortant A(H3N2) viruses in Minnesota USA were reported through IHR. The Minnesota virus was confirmed by the WHO Collaborating Center in CDC Atlanta. Sequence analysis has shown that the virus is closely related but not identical to the previous swine-origin triple reassortant A(H3N2) viruses from Wisconsin and Pennsylvania in November 2010.

The above comments from the Global Alert and Response flu update of December 17,2010, confirm the prediction that the sequences from the recently announce trH3N2 case in Minnesota will be closely related to the isolates from Wisconsin (September 6 infection) and Pennsylvania (October 24 infection). The CDC recently released these sequences as well as the two prior trH3N2 cases, which were related to the first trH3N2 case in Kansas (August 2009).

Four of the five prior isolates were closely related and had PB1 E618D, as well as additional polymorphisms that were found in all four human isolates but no recent swine isolates.  This relationship raised concerns that the trH3N2 virus were circulating in a human population, which would lead to more isolates in the same lineage. The above comments confirm that relationship
The above confirmation supports an emerging H3N2 swine pandemic and dictates more aggressive surveillance of human cases in the region.


•  Seven-fold increase in summer flu (Link)

•  Hong Kong: Lantau find sparks bird flu alert  (Link)

•  Dead Chicken in Hong Kong Confirmed to Have Bird Flu Virus (Link)
•   Hong Kong bird tests positive for bird flu  (Link)

•  South China: H5N1 positive chicken carcass found (Link)

•  Ecuador alert on rise in cases of influenza A (H1N1) (Link)

•  More Egyptian poor fall victim to flu season  (Link)

•  115 of bird flu child at the age of 11 years  (Link)
•  Egypt produces avian flu vaccine (Link)

•  Six different governorates infected with swine flu (Link)
•  Three succumb to swine flu; 19 infections reported nationwide (Link)
•  H1N1 virus claims three more lives (Link)

•  Egypt reports bird flu death case (Link)

•  Hooded crane in Kagoshima confirmed as infected with avian flu (Link)
•  Kagoshima Pref. checks poultry farms after bird flu found in wild crane (Link)

•  White-naped crane also suspected of bird flu infection in Kagoshima (Link)

•  First H1N1 death confirmed (Link)

Sri Lanka
•  Pregnant mother dies of A1H1N1 (Link)
•  ProMED: Influenza (24): Sri Lanka (Link)

United Kingdom
•  NHS helpline ‘at breaking point’ (Link)
•  New swine-flu discovery by Wales-based panel (Link)
•  Relenza and Tamiflu out of stock as demand rockets (Link)
•  Swine flu outbreak at prison (Link)

•  Sharp rise in serious flu cases prompts jab questions (Link)
•  Is swine flu a worry? (Link)
•  Another swine flu death (Link)
•  Swine flu patient dies in Wythenshawe Hospital (Link)

•  Serious flu cases on the rise in the UK (Link)
•  Hospitals running normally despite flu outbreak (Link)
•  Royal Berks Hospital stay away flu warning  (Link)
•  Flu surge alarms doctors as virus hits children (Link)

United States
•  US: Survey of Nurses from America’s Leading Hospitals: 93 Percent Feel Hospitals More Prepared to Handle Flu Season Demands Than Last Year (Link)
•  FL: Flu season gets early start in Fla., shots urged (Link)
•  TX: Free Flu Shots In Dallas County (Link)

•  Indiana reports state’s 1st flu death of season (Link)

•  Scientific American: U.S. Pig Farms May Be ‘Flu Factories’ (Link)

•  CIDRAP: US among countries reporting rise in flu activity (Link)

•  Severe swine flu may be helped with chemotherapy (Link)

•  Recombinomics: Spike In Young ICU H1N1 Cases In UK Raises Concerns (Link)

•  Recombinomics: Alaming Rate of Severe H1N1 Cases In UK (Link)

•  Recombination Driving H1N1 Evolution In United Kingdom (Link)